Sejarah Pembentukan Komite Nasional Indonesia dan Daerah

Sejarah pembentukan komite nasional Indonesia dan daerah merupakan bagian dari upaya pemerintah untuk membentuk lembaga-lembaga kelengkapan negara. Pada artikel yang telah lalu anda telah mengetahui tentang sejarah pembentukan kementrian dan departemen pada masa awal kemerdekaan. Dalam rapat PPKI tanggal 22 Agustus 1945 di gedung Kebaktian Rakyat Jawa (Gambir Selatan,  Jakarta ), telah  dibahas tiga masalah utama yang pernah dibicarakan dalam sidang sebelumnya.
Pertemuan yang dipimpin oleh wakil presiden Republik Indonesia Drs. Mohammad Hatta tersebut menghasilkan beberapa kesepakatan, diantaranya :
1)      KNI (Komite Nasional Indonesia) merupakan badan atau lembaga berfungsi sebagai dewan perwakilan rakyat sebelum dilaksanakannya pemilihan umum (pemilu). KNI ini disusun dari tingakt pusat hingga ke tingkat daerah.
2)      PNI (Partai Nasional Indonesia) dirancang menjadi partai tunggal negara Republik Indonesia, tetapi dibatalkan.
3)      BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat) berfungsi sebagai penjaga keamanan umum pada tiap-tiap daerah. (mengenai pembentukan BKR ini, silahkan simak artikel yang lain dalam blog sarisejarah tentang alasan Soekarno membentuk BKR)
sejarah pembentukan BKR
Komite Nasional Indonesia akhirnya berhasil dibentuk dengan baik. Bahkan selanjutnya Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (KNIP) juga dibentuk Komite Nasional Indonesia Daerah (KNID). Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat dipimpin oleh Kasman Singodimedjo dan Suwiryo sebagai sekretarisnya. Anggota Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat terdiri atas 136 orang. Pada tanggal 25 Agustus 1945 pemerintah Republik Indonesia dengan resmi mengumumkan terbenuknya KNIP dan pelantikannya dilaksanakan pada tanggal 29 Agustus 1945.
Dalam rapat KNIP tanggal 16 Oktober 1945, wakil presiden Republik Indonesia mengeluarkan Keputusan No.X yang isinya memberikan kekuasaan dan wewenang legislatif kepada KNIP untuk ikut serta untuk menetapkan Garis-Garis Besar Haluan Negara (GBHN) sebelum MPR terbentuk dalam pemilihan umum. Kemudian atas desakkan Ketua Badan Pekerja Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (BP-KNIP) Sutan Syahrir,pada tanggal 03 November 1945 pemerintah mengeluarkan Maklumat Politik yang di tandatangani oleh Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia. Isi dari Maklumat Politik itu adalah sebagai berikut :
1)      Pemerintah menghendaki adanya partai-partai politik,karna partai politik itu dapat membuka jalan buat semua aliran atau paham yang ada dalam masyarakat.
2)      Pemerintah berharap supaya partai-partai politik itu telah tersusun sebelum di laksankannya pemilihan anggota Badan Perwakilan Rakyat pada bulan Januari 1946.
Akibat dikeluarkannya maklumat pemerintah 3 november 1945, di Indonesia akhirnya muncul banyak partai politik, seperti :
-          Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesian (Masyumi), dipimpin oleh Dr.Soekiman Wirdjosandjodjo.
-          Partai Komunis Indonesia , dipimpin oleh Mr. Moh. Yusuf.
-          Partai Buruh Indonesia , dipimpin oleh Njono.
-          Partai Rakyat jelata , dipimpin oleh Sutan Dewanis .
-          Partai Kristen Indonesia , dipimpin oleh Ds. Probowinoto.
-          Partai Sosialis Indonesia , dipimpin oleh Mr. Amir Syarifudin.
-          Partai Rakyat Sosialis, dipimpin oleh Sutan Syahrir.
-          Partai Katolik Indonesia, dipimpin oleh I.J. Kasimo.
-          Persatuan Rakyat Marhaen Indonesia, dipimpin oleh J.B.Assa.
-          Partai Nasional Indonesia , dipimpin oleh Sidik Djodjosukarto
Selanjutnya BP-KNIP Mengeluarkan pengumuman nomer 5 tanggal 11 november 1945 tentang pertanggung jawaban menteri kepada perwakilan rakyat. Dalam pemikiran saat itu, KNIP Diartikan sebagai MPR. Sementara itu, BP-KNIP Diartikan sebagai MPR. Sementara itu, BP-KNIP Disamakan dengan DPR. Dengan demikian, dengan dikeluarkannya pengumuman nomer 5 secara tidak langsung BP-KNIP Telah meminta peralihan pertanggun jawaban menteri dari preiden kepada BP-KNIP. Anehnya, presiden soekarno menyetujui usul tersebut dan mengeluakan maklumat pemerintah tanggal 14 november 1945. KNIP juga kemudian ikut menyetujui.
Melalui persetujuan tersebut, sistem kabinet presidensial dalam UUD 1945 telah diamademen menjadi sistem kabinet parlementer. Ini terbukti setelah BP-KNIP mencalonkan sutan syahril sebagai perdana meteri. Akhirnya, cabinet presidensial Soekarno-Hatta jatuh dan digantikan Kabinet parlementer dengan sutan dengan sutan syahrir sebagai perdana menteri pertama. Kejadian ini adalah penyimpangan dari UUD  1945 Dalam Negara repubik Indonesia. []

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