History of Sriwijaya Kingdom

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Sriwijaya is the ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra that have a lot of islands in the archipelago. Inscription on the first Sriwijaya also be at the century-7, namely Bukit Prasasti Kedukan in Palembang, Sumatra, in the year 683. Kingdom began this fall in the year 1200 and 1300 due to various factors, including the expansion of the kingdom of Majapahit. Speak Sanskrit or Tamil.
- Prasasti Ligor in Thailand
- Prasasti Cantonese in Cantonese
- Prasasti Siwagraha
- Prasasti Nalanda in India
- Charter Leiden in India
- Prasasti Tanjor
- Padang Prasasti Roco
- Prasasti Sri Lanka

Chinese news sources
- Chronicles from the Tang Dynasty
- Chronicles Sung Dynasty
- Chronicles Ming Dynasty
- I Travel chronicles Tsing
- Chronicles Chu-fan-chi by Chau Ju-KUA
- Chronicles Ling-wai Tai-ta by Chou Ku Fei
Ancient inscription in Malay
- Prasasti Kedukan Hill on 16 June 682 BC in Palembang
- Talang Prasasti tuo dated 23 March 684 BC in Palembang
- Prasasti Telaga Batu 7-th century BC in Palembang
- Prasasti Palas Pasemah century BC-7 in South Lampung
- City Prasasti Lime on February 28 in 686 BC P. Bangka
History of Srivijaya newborn at the beginning of the 20th century AD, when George Coedes wrote his article entitled Le Royaume de Crivijaya in 1918 AD Actually, five years before that, ie in 1913 AD, Kern has published Inscription City Limestone, a relic of Srivijaya inscription found on the island of Bangka. However, at that time, Kern still considers Sriwijaya name listed on the inscription is as the name of a king, because Cri usually used as a designation or title of king.
In 1896 AD, the Japanese scholar Takakusu translate the works of I-Tsing, Nan-hai-Kuei-chi-ch'uan fa-nai into English under the title A Record of the Budhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago. However, in the book there is no name of Srivijaya, which is only Shih-li-fo-shih. From translation City Kapur inscription containing the name of Srivijaya and I-Tsing's work containing the name of Shih-li-fo-shih, Coedes later determined that, is the name of a kingdom of Sriwijaya in South Sumatra.
Furthermore, Coedes also provides that, where the capital of Srivijaya is Palembang, with rests on the supposition Groeneveldt in the essay, Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca, Compiled from Chinese Sources, which states that, San-fo-ts'I is Palembang. Other sources that support the existence of Palembang as the center of the kingdom is the Telaga Batu inscription. As a means to persumpahan ceremony, the inscriptions were usually placed in the center of the kingdom. Because it was found in the vicinity of Palembang in 1918 AD, then allegedly was the center of the kingdom of Sriwijaya in Palembang.
Another clue which states that Palembang was the center of the kingdom was also obtained from the findings of ceramic goods and pottery at the site Gutters Kikim, Cape Rawa, Bukit Siguntang and Kambang Unglen, all in the region of Palembang. From the findings of ceramics and the canals, then the archaeologists alleged that Palembang was the center of the kingdom grew stronger.
The main ingredient used to make buildings in the city center of Srivijaya is wood or bamboo that easy to get around it. In addition to the City Kapur inscription, also found inscriptions Coral estrus (discovered in 1904 AD), Telaga Batu (found in 1918 AD), Kedukan Hill (found in 1920 AD) Talang Tuo (discovered in 1920 AD) and the New Boom. In the inscriptions Talang Tuo who bertarikh 684 AD, is mentioned about the construction of the park by Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa for all beings, named Sriksetra. The data are enriched by Chinese and Arab news. Chinese sources most often cited are the notes I-Tsing.
He was a Buddhist pilgrim from China who has visited Sriwijaya several times and had resided for some time. The rules and ceremonies such as Buddhist monks with the rules and rituals performed by Buddhist monks in India. I-Tsing stay for 6 months in Srivijaya to learn Sanskrit, after that, then he went to Nalanda, India. Other Chinese records mention about Sriwijaya envoy who came regularly to China, which last was in 988 AD.
In another source, namely the Arab records, called Srivijaya Sribuza. Mas'udi, a classical Arab historians write notes about the year 955 AD Srivijaya In the note, described Srivijaya was a great empire, with the army very much. Sriwijaya crops are camphor, aloes wood, clove, sandalwood, nutmeg, cardamom, gambier and several other crops.
Of the foreign records, we know that the kingdom of Srivijaya is great in his time, with the region and extensive trade relations to Madagascar. A number of other evidence in the form of statues, stupika, as well as other inscriptions increasingly asserted that, in his time the kingdom of Srivijaya is having good communication with merchants and priests in China, India and Arabia. In the 11th century AD, Srivijaya began to decline. In the year 1006 AD, Srivijaya was attacked by Dharmawangsa from East Java. This attack was successfully repulsed, even Sriwijaya able to do a counter-attack and succeeded in destroying the kingdom Dharmawangsa. In the year 1025 AD, Srivijaya had an attack that crippled the kingdom Cola, India. 
 One way to expand the influence of the kingdom is to conduct a marriage with another kingdom. Dapunta Hyang in power since 664 AD, married with Sobakancana, second daughter of the king of the Kingdom of Tarumanegara, Linggawarman. This marriage gave birth to a son who becomes the next king of Srivijaya: Dharma Setu. This daughter later he wed with Samaratungga, kings of Old Mataram Kingdom from Dynasty dynasty. Goddess of marriage Setu with Samaratungga, then born Bala Putra Dewa who became king in Srivijaya of 833 to 856 AD Here is a list of genealogy of the kings of Srivijaya:
Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa (Inscription Kedukan Hill 683, Talang Tuo, 684).
1. Cri Indrawarman (news China, 724 years).
2. Rudrawikrama (news China, in 728, 742).
3. Vishnu (inscription Ligor, 775).
5. Balaputradewa (Nalanda inscription, 860).
6. Cri Udayadityawarman (news China, 960 years).
7. Cri Udayaditya (news China, 962 years).
8. Cri Cudamaniwarmadewa (news China, in 1003, the inscription of Leiden, 1044).
9. Maraviyayatunggawarman (inscription Leiden, 1044).
10. Cri Sanggaramawijayatunggawarman (Chola inscription, 1044).
Administration Period
Srivijaya kingdom ruled from the 7th century to early 13th century AD, and reached the golden age in the era of government Balaputra Gods (833-856 AD). Regional Power.
Historically, Srivijaya controlled the western part of the archipelago. In another source said that, Srivijaya power to Brunei on the island of Borneo.
From the inscriptions found in Lime City JK Van der Meulen on Bangka Island in December 1892 AD, obtained clues about the kingdom of Srivijaya that Java is trying to conquer Earth. Although not explained where the region is the Bhumi Java in the inscriptions, some archaeologists believe, that meant that Java Bhumi is the kingdom of Tarumanegara on the North Coast of West Java. Apart from the contents of the inscriptions, Srivijaya empire spread also can be known from inscriptions location Sriwjaya these relics. Other sources have said that, Srivijaya power actually reaches the Philippines. This is evidence that, Srivijaya had controlled most of the archipelago.
Governance Structure
The highest authority in the kingdom of Srivijaya held by the king. Equation showing the king with the god Indra in the Srivijaya king has the power that is transcendent.
Life on Economic, Social, Cultural
As a huge empire embracing Buddhism, the Sriwijaya has developed a climate conducive to developing the Buddhist religion. In traveling I-Tsing notes mentioned that, at that time, there are a thousand priests in Srivijaya. In his first trip, I-Tsing had resided for six months in Srivijaya for studying Sanskrit. Until the beginning of the 11th century AD, the kingdom of Srivijaya is still the center of Mahayana Buddhism studies. In its relations with India, the kings of Srivijaya build Buddhist sacred buildings in India. This fact is stated in two inscriptions, the inscriptions of King Dewapaladewa of Nalanda, which is thought to have originated from the 9th century AD, and the inscription of King Rajaraja I. numbered from the year 1044 AD and 1046 AD
The first inscription mentions about King Balaputradewa from Suwarnadwipa (Sriwijaya), who built a monastery, while the second inscription mentions about King Kataha and Srivijaya, Marawijayayottunggawarman who gave gifts to a village dedicated to the Buddha residing in the monastery Cudamaniwarna, Nagipattana, India.
In the field of trade, the kingdom of Srivijaya has a very good trade relations with merchants from China, India, Arabia and Madagascar. This can be ascertained from the findings of China's currency, ranging from the period of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) to Ming Dynasty (14-17 centuries AD). 

King who ruled
• Jayanasa (inscription Kedukan Hill, 683, and tuo Talang inscription, 684)
• Indravarman (China source, 704-716, 724)
• Rudra vikraman or Lieou-t'eng-kong-Wei (Chinese source, 728)
• Dharmasetu (inscription Ligor, 775)
• Maharaja (Arabic source, 851)
• Balaputra (Nalanda inscription, 860)
• Sri Uda Haridana or cri Udayadityavarman (Chinese source, 960)
• Sri Wuja or cri Udayadityan (Chinese source, 962)
• Hia-Tche (Chinese source, 980)
• Culamani varmadevan (source China, 988, 1003; or Tanjore inscription inscription Leiden, 1044)
• Maravijaya tungan or Maraviyayatungavarman (source China, 1008; inscription Leiden, 1044)
• Sumatrabhumi (source China, 1017)
• Sri Sangrama vijayatungan or cri Sangarama vijayatungavarman (Chola inscription, 1025)
• Sri Deva (of China, 1028)
• Sri Maharaja (of China, 1156)
• Trailorajan (source China, 1178)


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